Treatment of burn wounds
Author: Ambrosova I.A.
Depending on the factors affecting the burns are divided into:
1. Chemical (burns with alkalis or acids).
2. Thermal (steam, hot liquids, flame, contact burns).
3. Sun burns.
Treatment of burn wounds with thermal burns.
As a rule, first aid for thermal burns is not medical workers, and therefore, depending on how correctly and quickly it was made, the depth of damage to the tissues and the further course of the disease (and sometimes the life of the victim) will depend very much.
1. First of all, it is necessary to immediately terminate the effect of the thermal agent. The sooner this is done, the lesser the depth of the burn will be.
2. It should be noted that even after removal of the thermal effect, tissue damage continues. This is due to the fact that the burnt tissues themselves warm up to high temperatures, and therefore cooling is an obligatory component of first aid. To do this, a bubble with ice (for 10 to 15 minutes) is applied to the affected area or exposed to cold water.
3. After cooling the affected area, an aseptic dressing is applied to it to prevent secondary infection. It should be noted that you do not need to put a bandage on your face, it's enough to treat it with petroleum jelly.
4. The fourth stage is anesthesia and anti-shocks. If possible, the narcotic analgesic is injected, after which the intravenous introduction of blood substitutes of antishock nature begins. The patient needs to be warmed, and during this period an abundant warm alkaline drink is recommended.
5. Hospitalization in the hospital.
Treatment of burn wounds with chemical burns.
Such burns are caused by direct contact with skin or mucous acids, alkalis or phosphorus. As a rule, in these cases, the lesions are very clearly delineated, and the color of the burn depends on the type of chemical reagent.
So, for burns with sulfuric acid, the skin acquires black or gray staining, after a burn with hydrochloric acid, it becomes yellow, in case of nitric acid - yellow-green or yellow-brown. Concentrated hydrogen peroxide leaves a white burn, and borohydrides - gray. Often there is a characteristic smell of the substance that caused the burn.
It should be noted that chemical burns, as, indeed, all the others, are divided into 4 degrees according to the depth of the lesion.
Due to the fact that aggressive chemical. reagents are able to have a very long-lasting effect on the skin, and a burn within 20 - 30 minutes can significantly deepen, the victims need emergency help.
1. First of all, it is necessary to drop the clothes soaked with alkali or acid from the victim. After this you need to wash the affected areas with plenty of water.
2. In case of acid burn, dry scab forms on the skin, which after washing should be treated with soapy water or 2% solution of drinking soda to neutralize the acid, and then apply dry aseptic dressings.
If the burn occurred due to contact with alkali, the same manipulations are performed, only neutralization is carried out with a 2% solution of boric or citric acid, and also table vinegar.
Treatment of burn wounds with sunburn.
As a rule, sunburns appear after a long stay in the sun. Most often, these are lesions of the I degree, however, in some areas more severe burns can be formed (grade II).
On the spot of sunburn, there is redness, pain and swelling. Bubbles appear that disturb the victim for 4-5 days, very often due to overheating of the body, the overall temperature rises.
In the event of sunburn, the victim should be washed and poured with cold water, give a large amount of cool drink and lubricate the skin with boric petroleum jelly. Sea buckthorn oil for burns is also an effective and safe method of action.
In the case of extensive skin lesions, hospitalization is necessary.
How to treat burns in a hospital.
Treatment of burns is a very difficult task. For victims with extensive and deep burns, special wards are needed, with a medium devoid of bacteria, and with a certain microclimate. They are given infusion massive therapy, and various modifications of skin plasty are also prescribed. All this can be done only in the conditions of specialized burn centers.
The hospital has already been shown for the treatment of burns of the 2nd degree . Depending on the depth of the lesion, local treatment of burns can be conservative or operative. So, for superficial burns, healing up to 4 weeks, conservative treatment is chosen.
With deep burns, operative restoration of the dead skin is required.
Treatment of burn wounds and care for the burn surface.
When caring for the burnt surface, the skin around the burn is treated with an antiseptic solution, and the exfoliated epidermis and foreign bodies are removed. The most polluted areas are cleaned with hydrogen peroxide.
Very large bubbles need to be cut at the base and emptied. Exfoliated in the process of this operation, the epidermis does not need to be excised, since it, sticking to the wound surface, becomes a kind of biological dressing and helps to reduce pain, providing favorable conditions for epithelization.
Closed and open method of treatment of burn wounds.
Further treatment is performed either under the bandage (in a closed way), or without it (open). Sometimes a combination of the two methods is possible.
It should be noted that the closed method has its advantages:
1. It protects the wound from secondary infection, hypothermia and trauma.
2. Evaporation of water from the wound also decreases.
3. This method uses medications that suppress the growth of bacteria and contribute to the epithelization of the wound.
4. The patient can not be transported without a dressing.
Despite the fact that this method has many advantages, it also has its drawbacks:
In the case of an open method of treatment, the main task is the rapid formation of a dry scab, which in this situation is a biological bandage.
When applying this method of treatment, UVA, the drying effect of air, and also some coagulating proteins are used. Burning surface is treated with antiseptics, which have coagulating properties (5% solution of potassium permanganate, zelenka, etc.), after which the wound remains open. An important condition - that around wounds was warm and dry air up to 28 degrees. These treatments are performed 3 times a day and, in case of adequate treatment and compliance with the conditions of aseptic and antiseptic, a quick formation of a dry scab occurs.
author: doctor Salomykova EV
In everyday life, adults and children often get burned. Depending on the reason, chemical (from alkalis, acids, household chemicals, vinegar, etc.), thermal (from steam, boiling water, flame, high temperatures of household appliances,), electric and solar burns are isolated. In addition, a person receives burns when struck by lightning.
author: doctor Tyutyunnik DM
Damage to muscles, tissues by electrical, chemical or thermal effects, is called a burn. The degree and severity of the burn depends on the area and the depth of the surface damage. There are the following types of burns:
Author: ambulance doctor Deryushev A.N.
Second-degree burns are related to surface burns, since their depth does not affect the growth layer of the skin, therefore, the skin in the places of such burns can recover itself, without surgical intervention. At the time of the burn, there is hyperemia (redness) and swelling of the skin. Characteristic for the second degree of burn and the formation of bubbles filled with a clear liquid. This is accompanied by burning pain, which can persist for two to three days.
Author: ambulance doctor Deryushev A.N.
Burns of the fourth degree refer to deep burns, in which not only the entire layer of skin dies, but also muscles, bones, tendons, joints, up to charring. In the first hours after the burn, necrosis of the skin and underlying tissues develops.