Burn Burn Treatment
Author: doctor Ambrosova I.A.
Depending on the influencing factors, burns are divided into:
1. Chemical (burns with alkalis or acids).
2. Thermal (steam, hot liquids, flames, contact burns).
Treatment of burn wounds with thermal burns.
As a rule, first aid for thermal burns is not medical professionals, and therefore, depending on how correctly and quickly it was made, will greatly depend on the depth of tissue damage and the further course of the disease (and sometimes the life of the victim).
1. First of all, it is necessary to immediately stop the exposure to a thermal agent. The faster this is done, the shallower the burn will be.
2. It should be noted that even after the elimination of heat exposure, tissue damage continues. This is due to the fact that the burnt fabrics themselves are heated to high temperatures, and therefore cooling is a mandatory component of first aid. To do this, impose a bubble with ice on the affected area (for 10 - 15 minutes) or apply with cold water.
3. After cooling the affected area, an aseptic dressing is applied to it to prevent secondary infection. It should be noted that you do not need to put a bandage on your face, it is enough to treat it with petroleum jelly.
4. The fourth stage is anesthesia and anti-shock measures. If possible, a narcotic analgesic is injected into the victim, after which intravenous administration of anti-shock blood substitutes is initiated. It is necessary to warm the patient, and also during this period plentiful warm alkaline drink is recommended.
5. Hospitalization in the hospital.
Treatment of burn wounds for chemical burns.
These burns occur in direct contact with the skin or mucous acids, alkalis or phosphorus. As a rule, in these cases the lesions are very clearly defined, and the color of the burn depends on the type of chemical reagent.
So, with burns with sulfuric acid, the skin becomes black or gray in color, after a burn with hydrochloric acid, it becomes yellow, in the case of ingestion of nitric acid, yellow-green or yellow-brown. Concentrated hydrogen peroxide leaves a white burn, and borohydrides - gray. Often there is a characteristic smell of the substance that caused the burn.
It should be noted that chemical burns, as well as all the others, are divided into 4 degrees according to the depth of the lesion.
Due to the fact that aggressive chemical. the reagents can have a very long-lasting effect on the skin, and a burn for 20 to 30 minutes can significantly deepen, and emergency aid is required for the injured.
1. First of all, it is necessary to drop the clothes soaked with alkali or acid from the victim. After that, you need to wash the affected areas with plenty of water.
2. In the event of an acid burn, a dry scab forms on the skin, which, after washing, must be treated with soapy water or 2% baking soda solution to neutralize the acid, and then apply dry aseptic dressings.
If the burn occurred due to contact with alkali, the same manipulations are performed, only neutralization is carried out using a 2% solution of boric or citric acid, as well as table vinegar.
Treatment of burn wounds with sunburn.
As a rule, sunburn appears after a long stay in the sun. Most often these are lesions of the I degree, however, in some areas more severe burns can be formed (II degree).
Redness, pain and swelling occur in the place of sunburn. Bubbles appear that disturb the victim for 4–5 days, very often due to overheating of the body, the overall temperature rises.
If a sunburn occurs, the victim should be washed and doused with cold water, a large amount of cool drink should be drunk and skin should be smeared with boron vaseline. Sea buckthorn oil for burns is also an effective and safe method of exposure.
In case of extensive skin lesions, hospitalization is necessary.
How to treat burns in the hospital.
Treatment of burns is a very difficult task. For victims with extensive and deep burns, special wards are needed, with a medium free of bacteria and with a certain microclimate. They are prescribed massive infusion therapy, as well as various modifications of skin plasty. All this can be done only in conditions of specialized burn centers.
The hospital is already indicated in the treatment of burns of grade 2 . Depending on the depth of the lesion, local treatment of burns may be conservative or operative. So, for superficial burns, healing up to 4 weeks, choose a conservative method of treatment.
With deep burns, prompt restoration of dead skin is required.
Treatment of burn wounds and care for the burn surface.
When caring for a burned surface, the skin around the burn is treated with an antiseptic solution, and the exfoliated epidermis and foreign bodies are removed. The most contaminated areas are cleaned with hydrogen peroxide.
Very large bubbles must be cut at the base and emptied. The epidermis that has detached during this operation does not need to be excised, as it, sticking to the wound surface, becomes a kind of biological bandage and helps reduce pain, providing favorable conditions for epithelialization.
Indoor and open method of treating burn wounds.
Further treatment is performed either under the dressing (closed method) or without it (open). Sometimes a combination of the two is possible.
It should be noted that the closed method has its advantages:
1. It protects the wound from secondary infection, hypothermia, and injury.
2. It also reduces the evaporation of water from the wound.
3. This method uses medications that inhibit the growth of bacteria and contribute to the epithelization of the wound.
4. Transporting the patient without a dressing is not possible.
Despite the fact that this method has many advantages, it also has its drawbacks:
In the case of an open method of treatment, the main task is the rapid formation of a dry scab, which in this situation is a biological dressing.
When applying this method of treatment used UV, the drying effect of air, as well as some coagulating proteins. The burn surface is treated with antiseptics with coagulating properties (5% solution of potassium permanganate, brilliant green, etc.), after which the wound remains open. An important condition is that the wounds be warm and dry air around 28 degrees. Such treatments are carried out 3 times a day and, in case of adequate treatment and observance of the conditions of asepsis and antisepsis, the rapid formation of a dry scab occurs.
author: doctor Salomykova E.V.
At home, adults and children often get burned. Depending on the reason, they emit chemical (from alkalis, acids, household chemicals, vinegar, etc.), thermal (from steam, boiling water, flames, high temperatures of household appliances), electrical and sunburn. In addition, a person receives burns when struck by lightning.
author: doctor Tyutyunnik D.M.
Damage to muscles, tissue, electrical, chemical or thermal effects, is called a burn. The degree and severity of the burn depends on the area and depth of damage to the surface. The following types of burns are distinguished:
Author: Emergency Doctor Deryushev A.N.
Second-degree burns relate to superficial burns, since their depth does not affect the growth layer of the skin, therefore, the skin in places of such burns is able to recover itself, without surgery. At the time of the burn is determined by hyperemia (redness) and swelling of the skin. Characteristic of the second degree burns and the formation of bubbles filled with clear liquid. This is accompanied by burning pain, which can persist for two to three days.
Author: Emergency Doctor Deryushev A.N.
Fourth degree burns are deep burns, in which not only the entire layer of the skin dies, but also the muscles, bones, tendons, joints, and even charring are damaged. Already in the first hours after a burn, necrosis of the skin and underlying tissues develops.