Suppuration of the wound: causes and symptoms
Author: Surgeon Yurevich V.V.
Whatever the surgical intervention that any patient undergoes, it somehow implies a wound.
Unfortunately, even ideally performed surgery in all respects is often overshadowed by such an annoying phenomenon as suppuration.
What is wound suppuration? Wound suppuration is the formation and accumulation of pus in the soft tissues of a wound in the early or late postoperative period. Normally, any wound healing process is accompanied by varying degrees of inflammation. As a rule, the natural inflammatory response subsides within three to five days, and further the wound heals without any features. However, in some cases, the inflammatory reaction in the wound goes beyond the physiological norm, which in turn leads to the formation of pus.
Causes of wound suppuration
What are the reasons why wound suppuration develops?
In most cases, the accumulation of pus in the wound occurs for the following reasons:
1) The presence of infection in the wound. Infection can enter the wound in various ways. Most often this occurs in cases where surgery is performed about any purulent process in the body. For example, it happens in such diseases as neglected purulent appendicitis, purulent inflammation of the uterus, operations for purulent lesions of the lungs, and so on. Even with perfectly performed manipulations during surgery, some of the bacteria from the purulent focus enters the wound, which in some cases leads to suppuration.
Another reason for the initiation of a wound is much less pleasant - it is the failure to follow the rules of asepsis and antiseptics during surgery. This type of suppuration occurs when an infection hits, for example, when poor-quality processing of the surgeon’s hands or the surgical field before the operation, the use of poorly sterilized instruments, suture material, surgical linen. Also, an infection can get into the wound after the operation, which happens during bandaging, when the health worker does not wear a mask, does not use sterile gloves, and so on. Or the patient self-medicates and improperly applies ointments for purulent wounds .
If it is often impossible to prevent infection in a wound in severe purulent processes, infection with non-sterile material during the intervention is a gross medical error.
2) Purulent inflammation in a wound can occur without infection. This type of suppuration of wounds is found in people with increased sensitivity of the body. Despite the fact that modern dressing and suture material, as well as various prostheses, drains and other implants are practically harmless to the human body, in some cases the body “does not accept them” and tries to reject them in every way. This process of rejection of foreign materials also almost always ends with suppuration.
3) Suppuration of the wound may occur in patients with a weakened immune system. It has been reliably proven that patients undergoing various interventions that have any serious chronic diseases of internal organs (diseases of the liver, heart, lungs, kidneys, diabetes, HIV infection, etc.) suffer from suppuration of wounds several times more often than healthy people. .
Symptoms and treatment of wound suppuration
Despite the reason that led to the suppuration of the wound, its symptoms are in most cases the same. These include the following:
1) Constant pain in a wound that lasts a long time after surgery, sometimes up to several weeks and often has a pulsating or shooting character (normally, severe pain after surgery rarely exceeds 2-4 days and corresponds to the natural inflammatory process that occurs in any wound).
2) High body temperature, which in most cases rises in the evening and exceeds 38.0-38.5 ° C.
3) Signs of inflammation in the wound, persisting for more than 2-4 days. These include redness of the skin around the wound, swelling, increase in local temperature in the wound (the wound is hot to the touch)
4) Obvious signs of a purulent process - when pus is released through the sutures of the wound or after their removal.
These symptoms can never be assessed separately. Only a comprehensive assessment of them allows accurate and timely diagnosis of this complication.
It should be noted that wound suppuration is not such a rare occurrence and arises according to various sources in 1-15% of cases of all surgical interventions (on average this figure is 5%). As a rule, the purulent process develops 3 days after the operation and reaches a maximum by the end of the first week. When the patient is in the hospital during the first week after the operation, the doctor most often easily recognizes him and takes the appropriate actions. However, in some cases, for example, with deep purulent processes, weak immunity, severe concomitant diseases, suppuration may develop, as it were, unnoticed and at a later date.
Treatment of wound suppuration is usually reduced to opening a wound, either by removing the stitches in the early postoperative period, or by repeated surgery for an already healing wound and evacuation of purulent discharge with subsequent treatment of the wound with antiseptic solutions until it is fully healed. This is called primary surgical debridement.
And in conclusion, I would like to say that any purulent process is potentially dangerous for the human body and is fraught with serious build up to blood poisoning and death. That is why at the slightest indisposition after any operation and, especially if there are symptoms of suppuration, it is necessary to immediately consult a surgeon.
Purulent wound is characterized by the presence of pus, tissue necrosis, the development of microbes, tissue swelling, absorption of toxins. The principles of treatment of purulent wounds are based on the study of the processes occurring in a wound during its healing and conditions conducive to regeneration. Tasks of treatment: removal of pus and necrotic tissues; reduction of edema and exudation; fight against microorganisms.
Rana - mechanical damage to tissues in violation of their integrity. It has been proven that for the development of an infection in a wound, 105-106 microbial bodies are needed per gram of tissue. This is the so-called "critical" level of bacterial contamination. But the "critical" level can be low. Currently, it is believed that every accidental wound is bacterially contaminated or infected.
Author: doctor Deryushev A.N.
This is how our life is arranged, that from early childhood we have to face such a problem as wounds. This is natural, because to avoid injuries is almost impossible. Naturally, our desire to get rid of these wounds as soon as possible. In this connection, there is a need to talk in sufficient detail about how to deal with the problem of wounds, what drugs and ointments exist and what is recommended to use.
Author: doctor Kamneva A.N.
What is the first aid for scratches, abrasions and wounds?
Quite often, children and adults damage soft tissue and violate the integrity of the skin in the form of wounds, abrasions and scratches. Therefore, it is very important for every person to know what the first aid is for scratches, abrasions and wounds.
author: doctor Kuznetsov M.A.
Probably, abrasions and scratches are one of the most common skin lesions, which are completely harmless to life and go away almost “by themselves” (at least, it seems so at first glance). In this article, we will look at questions about what abrasions are, what are their features when they are on their feet, and also focus on some points of treatment.
Author: doctor Kuznetsov MA
Our body is a complex biological system with a huge potential for self-healing, including wound healing. In this regard, the main task in the treatment of purulent wounds is to use drugs depending on the stage of the process.
Author: Surgeon Yurevich V.V.
Of all the types of inflammation that occurs in the human body, purulent inflammation is considered to be one of the most complex and potentially dangerous for both health and life. The severity of any purulent process depends primarily on such factors as the location of the abscess, its prevalence, the state of the human body, its immunity, age, the presence of concomitant diseases and much more.
author: doctor Alafinov V.D.
Purulent atheroma is an acute microbial inflammation of the contents of a clogged and distended sebaceous skin gland. The sebaceous glands are located in the skin and closely adjoin the hair follicles. These glands produce fatty grease for hair and skin. When blockage of the excretory ducts can form cysts - sacs filled with mushy sebaceous mass. In all places where hair grows and there are sebaceous glands, atheroma can form. Most often they appear in the head, face, back, neck, genitals.