At what distance is the pleura from the surrounding organs
author: doctor Samoilova MA
Pleura is a shell that lays on one side the lungs (visceral or internal), and on the other hand the inner wall of the chest cavity (parietal or external). Between them a slit-shaped space is formed, in which normally there is a pleural fluid serving to reduce friction between two pleural sheets during respiratory movements of the lungs.
Sometimes, in inflammatory diseases of the pleura, auscultatory (through the phonendoscope), a pleural friction noise is heard. The inner and outer pleura connect with each other in a place at the entrance to the lungs of vessels, nerves and bronchi. This place is called the root of the lungs. On the posterior, lateral and anterior surface, the parietal (external) pleura contacts the ribs and is called the costal. To imagine how far the pleura is , it is necessary to understand what it borders on.
In the lower part of the pleura
In the lower parts it borders on the diaphragm and is called the diaphragm. At the top of the parietal pleura is located above the upper edge of the clavicle at the place of its articulation with the breastbone for 2-3 cm (depends on the constitution of the person) and is called the dome of the pleura. On the inner side it borders on the mediastinum - the mediastinal pleura. In the lower parts of the transition from the costal and medial part of the pleura to the diaphragm part of it, folds are formed, which are called sinuses. In them in the first begins to accumulate fluid (pus, blood) with certain diseases of the lungs and pleura.
In the chest, along with the lungs and covering their pleura, there is a mediastinum, in which are vital organs, vessels and nerves.
In front and behind the pleura
At the front, the mediastinum serves as a sternum. Back of the thoracic spine. The sides of the mediastinum are the mediastinal section of the parietal pleura. The diaphragm forms the lower boundary of the mediastinum. Mediastinal division is divided into four divisions. The superior mediastinum is above the line between the two roots of the lungs. It contains the thymus gland, fatty tissue, the arch of the aorta and the vessels that drain from it (the ciliary artery, the subclavian artery), the esophagus, the thoracic lymphatic duct, the vagus nerves.
In its central part
Below the lines connecting the roots of the lungs is the anterior mediastinum. In it pass the internal thoracic and lymphatic vessels. In the middle mediastinum there is a heart and the surrounding heart membrane (pericardium), trachea bifurcation, main bronchi, pulmonary arteries, veins and nerves. In the posterior mediastinum between the posterior wall of the cardiac membrane and the spine is the descending aorta, esophagus, thoracic duct, fatty tissue and nerves.
Also read an article about the depth at which the pleura is located with surrounding tissues according to the opinion of a colleague.
author: doctor Saplonov KN
Pleura is a shell lining the surface of the lungs on one side, and on the other hand lining the thorax from the inside. As a result, between the leaves of the pleura, not a large cavity is formed, containing normally not a large amount of pleural fluid that lubricates the surface of the pleura during movements of the lungs.
Pleuritis is called inflammation of the pleura. On its surface, deposits of fibrin are formed, and inflammatory fluid (exudate) accumulates in its cavity.
author: doctor Bogdanova S.V.
Pleurosclerosis is a multiple metastasis of a tumor in the pleura that occurs when malignant neoplasms are present in the body.
author: doctor Salomykova EV
Pleura is located in the chest cavity. To get to the chest cavity, the surgeon needs to go through several layers of tissue. In the beginning it is the skin (contains sebaceous and sweat glands) and subcutaneous fatty tissue. Then comes a layer of muscle tissue. There also passes a large number of blood vessels (arteries and veins) and nerve endings. Thanks to them, nutrition and innervation (delivery of nerve impulses) of the muscles takes place. The finest branches of blood vessels and nerves reach the skin, delivering the necessary substances and providing sensitivity.
author: doctor Tyutyunnik DM
Under such a concept as a pleura, a thin serous membrane is meant that covers each lung - it is commonly called the visceral pleura) and lining the walls of the pleural cavity of the lungs (parietal pleura). Pleura has the finest connective tissue base, which is covered with a flat epithelium (mesothelium) and is located on the basal membrane.