Botkin Sergey Petrovich
The significance of the works of Sergei Petrovich Botkin (1832-1889) for domestic and world medicine cannot be overestimated. Literally everyone in our country has heard this name at least a few times, even if he himself is far from medicine and has never consulted doctors. After all, everyone has heard about "Botkin's disease" - hepatitis A, the pathophysiology and causes of which were first described by Sergei Petrovich.
Only 28 years old, Botkin defends his dissertation, and a year later he becomes a professor. At his clinic, Botkin created the first laboratory in the history of Russia in which he and his students studied the pharmacological action of various medicinal substances. In the future, this laboratory has grown into the largest research institute of experimental medicine.
The pupils of Sergei Petrovich recorded and then published in three volumes his lectures, which were called “The Course of Clinics of Internal Diseases” in three volumes. In them, Botkin expressed his theory that the organism can exist only in close contact with the environment. He argued that the human body is constantly in the metabolism of the environment, so that it remains viable, and changes in the environment help it to develop new properties. Now it seems obvious to any ordinary person, but for the first time such thoughts were voiced and formulated by S. P. Botkin. It was he who first began to assert that "all diseases are from nerves." Now this phrase is often pronounced as a joke, but there is a lot of truth in it.
Botkin paid great attention to the physiology of the nervous system. He argued that an assessment of the state of the nervous system would help to recognize and explain the nature of many internal diseases. Many years later, most of his guesses and statements were proved by physiologists, patphysiologists, anatomists and clinicians.
S. P. Botkin formulated the basic principles of medical science: the most important task is the prevention of the disease, the treatment of an already developed disease and the alleviation of the suffering of the patient.
Throughout his practice, Botkin opened free clinics, some of which still exist. Sergei Petrovich owns many medical discoveries that contribute to a significant breakthrough in Russian medical science. You can enumerate them almost infinitely and there is no such area of medicine in which the talent of the Great Physician would not leave his mark.
In all his life, Sergey Petrovich has made only one wrong diagnosis - to himself. Suffering from coronary heart disease, he continued to insist that these were just intestinal cramps. At the age of 57, he died of heart failure.
author material: surgeon Mednikov N.A.
Bobrov Alexander Alekseevich (1850-1904) is a graduate of the medical faculty of Moscow University, where he distinguished himself as a student for his work on the topic "Concussion of the brain and traumatic shock." The practice was held in the clinic of the surgeon Novatsky.
Inozemtsev Fedor Ivanovich entered the history of Russian public health, not only as an outstanding surgeon and doctor of medicine, but also a reformer. The name of Fyodor Ivanovich is attributed to the first in the Russian Empire ether anesthesia, conducted during an operation to remove a breast tumor. In addition, the development of methods for the treatment of cholera, scientific works from the field of research of the autonomic nervous system is also associated with his name.
Pirogov Nikolai Ivanovich (1810-1881) - Russian surgeon, founder of the atlas of topographic anatomy (mutual location anatomy), founder of Russian military surgery and anesthesia (the science of anesthesia).
Nikolai Ivanovich was born in Moscow. At the age of 14, he entered the Moscow University, Faculty of Medicine. At 26, he was a doctor of medical sciences. After some time in St. Petersburg, he organized a hospital clinic, where he developed his own surgical methods of treatment, which less often led to amputation of limbs than surgical techniques before him.
Peter Ivanovich Dyakonov (1855-1908) is one of the eminent surgeons of Russia. His activity in medicine was distinguished by a wide range of interests and discoveries. He showed particular interest in the development of topographic anatomy. Among the main contributions of Peter Ivanovich to this science, a special place is occupied by the description of the retrosternal space, made by fiber.