Botkin Sergey Petrovich
The significance of the works of Sergei Petrovich Botkin (1832-1889) for national and world medicine can not be overestimated. Literally everyone in our country at least several times heard this name, even if he himself is far from medicine and never addressed to doctors. After all, everyone has heard about "Botkin's Disease" - hepatitis A, pathophysiology and causes of which were first described by Sergei Petrovich.
In just 28 years Botkin defends his thesis, and a year later becomes a professor. With his clinic, Botkin creates the first in the history of Russia laboratory, in which he and his students studied the pharmacological action of various drugs. Later this laboratory grew into the largest research institute of experimental medicine.
Pupils of Sergei Petrovich recorded and then published in three volumes of his lectures, which were called "Course of Internal Medicine Clinics" in three volumes. In them, Botkin expressed his theory that the organism can exist only in close contact with the environment. He argued that the human body is constantly in the metabolism with the environment, so it remains viable, and changes in the environment help him to develop new properties. Now this seems obvious to any ordinary person, but for the first time such thoughts were voiced and formulated precisely by SP Botkin. It was he who first began to assert that "all diseases are from nerves." Now this phrase is pronounced more often as a joke, but there is a lot of truth in it.
Botkin paid a great deal of attention to the physiology of the nervous system. He argued that assessing the state of the nervous system will help to recognize and explain the nature of many internal diseases. Many years later, most of his conjectures and assertions were proved by physiologists, pathophysiologists, anatomists and clinicians.
SP Botkin formulated the basic principles of medical science: the main task is to prevent the disease, treat the already developed disease and alleviate the patient's suffering.
Throughout his practice, Botkin opened free clinics, some of which exist to this day. Sergei Petrovich has many medical discoveries that contribute to a significant breakthrough in Russian medical science. Enumerate them almost endlessly and there is no such field of medicine in which the talent of the Great Physician would not leave its trace.
For all his life, Sergei Petrovich has put only one wrong diagnosis - to himself. Suffering from coronary heart disease, he continued to insist that it was only intestinal colic. At the age of 57, he died of heart failure.
Author of the material: surgeon N. Mednikov.
Bobrov Alexander Alekseevich (1850-1904) is a graduate of the medical faculty of Moscow University, where he distinguished himself as a student for his work on "Concussion and traumatic shock". Practice was held in the clinic of surgeon Novatsky.
Inozemtsev Fyodor Ivanovich entered the history of Russian public health, not only as an outstanding surgeon and doctor of medicine, but also as a reformer. The name of Feodor Ivanovich is associated with the first in the Russian Empire ethereal anesthesia, carried out during an operation to remove a breast tumor. In addition, the development of methods for treating cholera, scientific works from the field of research of the autonomic nervous system is also associated with his surname.
Pirogov Nikolai Ivanovich (1810-1881) - Russian surgeon, the founder of the atlas of topographic anatomy (anatomy of mutual disposition), the founder of Russian military surgery and anesthesia (the science of pain management).
Nikolai Ivanovich was born in Moscow. At the age of 14, he entered the Moscow University in the medical faculty. At the age of 26 he was a doctor of medical sciences. After a while in St. Petersburg, he organized a hospital clinic, where he developed his own surgical methods of treatment, which led to amputation of the extremities rather than surgical techniques before him.
Petr Ivanovich Dyakonov (1855-1908) is one of the outstanding surgeons in Russia. His activity in medicine was characterized by a wide range of interests and discoveries. He showed particular interest in the development of topographic anatomy. Among the main contributions of Pyotr Ivanovich to this science, a special place is occupied by the description of the squat space made by fiber.